Mineralization for CO₂ sequestration using olivine sorbent in the presence of water vapor
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Mineralization has the potential to capture CO₂. In nature, mineralization is the chemical weathering of alkaline-earth minerals in which stable carbonate minerals are formed, which leads to the removal of CO₂ from the atmosphere. The adsorptive carbonation reaction of olivine ((Mg,Fe)₂SiO₄)), consisting mainly of pure magnesium silicate (Mg₂SiO₄), a main constituent of the Earth’s crust, was carried out to estimate its potential application to the separation of CO₂ in the presence of water vapor in combustion plumes. Based on the thermodynamics for a basis of the reaction mechanism, the olivine carbonation reaction is thermodynamically favorable. Water vapor was found to play an important role in improving the carbonation rate, and experimental results revealed that carbon dioxide carbon dioxide can bind into olivine minerals to form highly stable surface carbonates. The reaction activity of olivine and pure Mg₂SiO₄ in the presence/absence of water vapor was carried out by varying the temperature, reactant concentrations, and space time. Based on changes in CO₂ concentration with time, the reaction kinetic model of pure Mg₂SiO₄carbonation was developed. The reaction order was found to be approximately 1 for CO₂. The activation energy derived for the Arrhenius equation of Mg₂SiO₄-based carbonation is 76.2 ± 4.8 kJ/mol based on the changes in the reaction rates with temperature in the range of 150-200°C. To investigate the molecular reaction mechanism of CO₂ adsorption on the metal oxide surface, forming carbonates, we performed the quantum mechanical calculation of CO₂ adsorption on a CaO (100) surface. It shows that CO₂ molecules strongly react with the CaO surface due to its high reactivity and high basicity. Consequently, this study will basically lay the groundwork for the chemical mechanism of mineral carbonation of olivine with carbon dioxide in the presence of water vapor and as provide relevant information for the practical application of CO₂ sequestration by stable adsorption on mineral silicates.