Electrical and fluidic interconnect design and technology for 3D ICS
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For decades, advances in device scaling has proven to be critical in improving the performance and productivity of 2D systems. In this thesis, we explore how advances in technology have pushed functional integration to such a high-level that interconnection and packaging issues represent real barriers to further progress. While three-dimensional (3D) integration offers to be a potential contender to overcome the barriers of increased energy consumption due to interconnects and bandwidth limitations, there are certain challenges that must be overcome before systems can be successfully stacked. Cooling and power delivery are among these key challenges in the integration of high performance 3D ICs. To address these challenges, microchannel heat sinks for inter-stratum cooling and through-silicon vias (TSVs) for signaling and power delivery between stacked ICs were explored. Novel integration schemes to integrate these uidic and electrical interconnects in conventional CMOS processes were also explored. Compact physical modeling was utilized to understand the trade-offs involved in the integration of electrical and microfluidic interconnects in a 3D IC stack. These concepts were demonstrated experimentally by showing different CMOS compatible methods of fabricating microchannels and integration of high aspect ratio (~20:1) and high density (200,000/cm²) electrical TSVs in the fins of the microchannels for signaling and power delivery. A novel mesh process for bottom up plating of high aspect ratio TSVs is also shown in this work. Fluidic reliability measurements are shown to demonstrate the feasibility of this technology. This work also demonstrates the design and fabrication of a 3D testbed which consists of a 2 chip stack with microchannel cooling on each level. Preliminary testing of the stack along with interlayer electro-fluidic I/Os has also been demonstrated.