Biomaterials for tissue engineering for rheumatoid arthritis based on controlling dendritic cell phenotype
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The host response toward biomaterial component of tissue-engineered devices has been extensively investigated. The objective of this research was to understand the response of dendritic cells (DCs) to different biomaterials upon contact and identify biomaterials suitable for use in tissue engineering constructs for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) applications. Differential levels of functional DC maturation were observed depending on the type of biomaterial in 2-dimensional films or 3-dimensional scaffolds used to treat immature DCs; Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or chitosan supported higher levels of DC maturation, as compared to immature DCs. Alginate supported moderate levels of DC maturation. Agarose did not support DC maturation whereas hyaluronic acid inhibited DC maturation. Further, these DCs treated with different biomaterials induced differential phenotype and polarization of autologous T cells upon co-culture of DCs and T cells; DCs treated with PLGA induced T helper type I with immunogenic response while DCs treated with agarose did T helper type II with tolerogenic response. Effect of different biomaterials (PLGA and agarose) was assessed in vivo upon implantation of them into the knee joint of RA-induced rabbit. Total leukocyte concentrations in the peripheral blood or in the joint lavage of the left knees (untreated control) were observed in differential levels depending on the biomaterial implant, possibly due to the systemic circulation of the peripheral blood. Furthermore, cartilage and bone healing progression was differentially observed in the osteochondral defect of the knee joint of RA-induced rabbit, depending on type of biomaterial scaffold implanted into the defect. Collectively, these results demonstrate the multifunctional impacts of inherently different biomaterials on in vitro immunomodulation of phenotype and polarization of DCs and autologous T cells. Furthermore, taken together with these immunomodulatory impacts of biomaterials, in vivo effects of different biomaterial scaffolds on RA environment shown in this study can suggest the criteria of selection and design of biomaterials for orthopedic tissue engineering, which may ultimately be best integrated into the diseased cartilage and bone.