Development and assessment of environmental indicators for mobile source impacts on emissions, air quality, exposure and health outcomes.
Pachon Quinche, Jorge Eduardo
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Environmental indicators were developed and evaluated to assess the impact of mobile sources on emissions, air quality, exposure and health. Different levels of indicators are discussed, from single species to multipollutant indicators. Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and elemental carbon (EC) were chosen as indicators of mobile sources because emissions of these pollutants are largely attributed to mobile sources and ambient concentrations have a close response to the change in mobile source emissions. These pollutants were used in the construction of the integrated mobile source indicators (IMSI). The IMSI have larger spatial representativeness and stronger associations with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) than single pollutants. The use of IMSI in epidemiologic modeling constitutes an alternative approach to assess the health impact of pollutant mixtures and can provide support for the setting of multipollutant air quality standards. The human health benefits of reducing mobile sources emissions were more consistent using multipollutant indicators. Indicator values and uncertainties, in the form of indicator sets, are presented with their associated outcomes and attributes to be useful for policy makers who are interested not only in the value of the indicators, but also in their associated uncertainties and their applicability at other times and other regions.