Modeling, design, and characterization of through vias in silicon and glass interposers
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Advancements in very large scale integration (VLSI) technology have led to unprecedented transistor and interconnect scaling. Further miniaturization by traditional IC scaling in future planar CMOS technology faces significant challenges. Stacking of ICs (3D IC) using three dimensional (3D) integration technology helps in significantly reducing wiring lengths, interconnect latency and power dissipation while reducing the size of the chip and enhancing performance. Interposer technology with ultra-fine pitch interconnections needs to be developed to support the huge I/O connection requirement for packaging 3D ICs. Through vias in stacked silicon ICs and interposers are the key components of a 3D system. The objective of this dissertation is to model through vias in 3D silicon and glass interposers and, to address power and high-speed signal integrity issues in 3D interposers considering silicon biasing effects. An equivalent circuit model of the through via in silicon interposer (Si TPV) has been proposed considering the bias voltage dependent Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) capacitance effect. Important design guidelines and optimizations are proposed for Si TPVs used in the signal delivery network, power delivery network (PDN), and as variable capacitors. Through vias in glass interposers (Glass TPVs) are modeled, designed and simulated by using electromagnetic field solvers. Signal and power integrity analyses are performed for silicon and glass interposers. PDN design is proposed by utilizing the MOS capacitance of the Si TPVs for decoupling.