Influence of cross-frame detailing on curved and skewed steel I-girder bridges
MetadataShow full item record
Curved and skewed I-girder bridges exhibit torsional displacements of the individual girders and of the overall bridge cross-section under dead loads. As a result, the girder webs can be plumb in only one configuration. If the structure is built such that the webs are plumb in the ideal no-load position, they generally cannot be plumb under the action of the structure's steel or total dead load; hence, twisting of the girders is unavoidable under dead loads. The deflected geometry resulting from these torsional displacements can impact the fit-up of the members, the erection requirements (crane positions and capacities, the number of temporary supports, tie down requirements, etc.), the bearing cost and type, and the overall strength of the structure. Furthermore, significant layover may be visually objectionable, particularly at piers and abutments. If the torsional deflections are large enough, then the cross-frames are typically detailed to compensate for them, either partially or fully. As specified in Article C6.7.2 of the AASHTO LRFD Specifications, different types of cross-frame detailing methods are used to achieve theoretically plumb webs under the no-load, steel dead load, or total dead load conditions. Each of the cross-frame detailing methods has ramifications on the behavior and constructability of a bridge. Currently, there is much confusion and divergence of opinion in the bridge industry regarding the stage at which steel I girder webs should be ideally plumb and the consequences of out-of-plumbness at other stages. Furthermore, concerns are often raised about potential fit-up problems during steel erection as well as the control of the final deck geometry (e.g., cross-slopes and joint alignment). These influences and ramifications of cross-frame detailing need to be investigated and explained so that resulting field problems leading to needless construction delays and legal claims can be avoided. This dissertation addresses the influence of cross-frame detailing on curved and/or skewed steel I girder bridges during steel erection and concrete deck placement by conducting comprehensive analytical studies. Procedures to determine the lack-of-fit forces due to dead load fit (DLF) detailing are developed to assess the impact of different types of cross-frame detailing. The studies include benchmarking of refined analytical models against selected full scale experimental tests and field measurements. These analytical models are then utilized to study a variety of practical combinations and permutations of bridge parameters pertaining to horizontal curvature and skew effects. This research develops and clarifies procedures and provides new knowledge with respect to the impact of cross-frame detailing methods on: 1) constructed bridge geometries, 2) cross-frame forces, 3) girder stresses, 4) system strengths, 5) potential uplift at bearings, and 6) fit-up during erection. These developments provide the basis for the development of refined guidelines for: 1) practices to alleviate fit-up difficulties during erection, 2) selection of cross-frame detailing methods as a function of I-girder bridge geometry characteristics, and 3) procedures to calculate the locked-in forces due to DLF cross-frame detailing.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Effects of withholding information about implementation details on the design of a human-computer interface Russell, C. Ray (Georgia Institute of Technology, 1989-05)
Brogan, David C. (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2000)
Prediction of Soot Formation in Laminar Opposed Diffusion Flame with Detailed and Reduced Reaction Mechanisms Chang, Hojoon (Georgia Institute of Technology, 2004-12-01)The present work focuses on a computational study of a simplified soot model to predict soot production and destruction in methane/oxidizer (O2 and N2) and ethylene/air flames using a one-dimensional laminar opposed diffusion ...