The centimeter- and millimeter-wavelength ammonia absorption spectra under jovian conditions
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Accurate knowledge of the centimeter- and millimeter-wavelength absorptivity of ammonia is necessary for the interpretation of the emission spectra of the jovian planets. The objective of this research has been to advance the understanding of the centimeter- and millimeter-wavelength opacity spectra of ammonia under jovian conditions using a combination of laboratory measurements and theoretical formulations. As part of this research, over 1000 laboratory measurements of the 2-4 mm-wavelength properties of ammonia under simulated upper and middle tropospheric conditions of the jovian planets, and approximately 1200 laboratory measurements of the 5-20 cm-wavelength properties of ammonia under simulated deep tropospheric conditions of the jovian planets have been performed. Using these and pre-existing measurements, a consistent mathematical formalism has been developed to reconcile the centimeter- and millimeter-wavelength opacity spectra of ammonia. This formalism can be used to estimate the opacity of ammonia in a hydrogen/helium atmosphere in the centimeter-wavelength range at pressures up to 100 bar and temperatures in the 200 to 500 K range and in the millimeter-wavelength range at pressures up to 3 bar and temperatures in the 200 to 300 K range. In addition, a preliminary investigation of the influence of water vapor on the centimeter-wavelength ammonia absorptivity spectra has been conducted. This work addresses the areas of high-sensitivity centimeter- and millimeter-wavelength laboratory measurements, and planetary science, and contributes to the body of knowledge that provides clues into the origin of our solar system. The laboratory measurements and the model developed as part of this doctoral research work can be used for interpreting the emission spectra of jovian atmospheres obtained from ground-based and spacecraft-based observations. The results of the high-pressure ammonia opacity measurements will also be used to support the interpretation of the microwave radiometer (MWR) measurements on board the NASA Juno spacecraft at Jupiter.