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dc.contributor.authorConceição, Pedroen_US
dc.contributor.authorHeitor, Manuel V.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSirilli, Giorgioen_US
dc.contributor.authorWilson, Roberten_US
dc.date.accessioned2012-04-06T14:20:18Z
dc.date.available2012-04-06T14:20:18Z
dc.date.issued2004
dc.identifier.citationPedro Conceição, Manuel V. Heitor, Giorgio Sirilli, and Robert Wilson, “The “Swing of the Pendulum” from Public to Market Support for Science and Technology: Is the US Leading the Way?” Technological Forecasting and Social Change,Volume 71(5)en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1853/43209
dc.descriptionProceedings of the the First Globelics Academy, Ph.D. School on National Systems of Innovation and Economic Development, Lisbon, Portugal 25 May - 4 June 2004.en_US
dc.descriptionPaper prepared for publication in “Technological Forecasting and Social Change”,Volume 71(5) (Special Issue on “Technology Policy and Innovation” to be published with selected and extended papers from the 6th Intl. Conf. on Technology Policy and Innovation, Kansai, August 2002)en_US
dc.description.abstractThe structure and financing of science and technology activities are undergoing a slow, but profound, change. This change can be briefly characterized as a shift from relying and supporting public science to a stronger emphasis on “market-based” incentives for science and technology. In this paper we analyze this shift in a historical perspective, discussing both the theoretical explanations and the empirical trends of the ongoing change. While we do not claim to provide a comprehensive and exhaustive identification of the causes of this shift, we argue that it is largely driven by the perception of a shift of the US policy towards market-based, rather than publicly support, incentives for science and technology. This, in turn – given the strong economic performance of the US over the 1990s – has influenced policies in most OECD countries, and especially in Europe. We conclude by analyzing the evolution of research in US higher education and find two major trends: an increasing diversity in the number of institutions of different types other than universities and a steady and continuous public funding of the leading US universities. This has allowed the construction of an infrastructure now used largely by the private sector, but it also noted that the US has not compromised public support for core areas or in those fields in which there is a clear perception that market incentives are not sufficient for meeting the strategic targets of the US policy. The implication is that there is a considerable “policy diversity” in the US practice and that all aspects of this diversity should be considered when using the US as a reference.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherGeorgia Institute of Technologyen_US
dc.subjectFinancing of science and technology activitiesen_US
dc.subjectR&Den_US
dc.subjectMarket-based incentivesen_US
dc.subjectInnovationen_US
dc.subjectUnited Statesen_US
dc.titleThe “Swing of the Pendulum” from Public to Market Support for Science and Technology: Is the US Leading the Way?en_US
dc.typeProceedingsen_US
dc.contributor.corporatenameGlobal Network for Economics of Learning, Innovation, and Competence Building Systemsen_US
dc.contributor.corporatenameInstituto Superior Técnico (Lisbon, Portugal). Centro de Estudos em Inovação, Tecnologia e Políticas de Desenvolvimentoen_US
dc.contributor.corporatenameInstitute for Socio-Economic Studies on Innovation and Research Policies (Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche (Italy))en_US
dc.contributor.corporatenameLyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairsen_US


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