Local system of innovation centered on audiovisual production
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In influential work with focus on the "Cultural Industries", David Throsby (1994) seeks to construct a formal model based on marginalist microeconomic assumptions to determine the factors that influence and explain the level of remuneration of an artist. In this model the factor called “talent” ends up as a "not explained residual", which however is of central importance for determining the artists’ income. This curious similarity with former chapters of economics reflects the difficulties and limitations of mainstream economics to deal with cultural activities and calls for a conceptual framework that pushes to the forefront of discussion the knowledge and its processes of generation and diffusion. Cultural or creative activities have been recognized as some of the fastest growing sectors of the world economy. Within the cultural activities, those that create, produce and distribute audiovisual products and services deserve attention, especially because of their significant share in the world GDP of cultural activities and in the international trade. Brazil has a prominent role in this sector and the most important productive system of audiovisual content is located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. In the city are also located the main relevant organizations such as ANCINE (the national regulatory agency for the cinematographic sector), RIOFILMES (a public organization with strategic role in to the promotion of the movie industry and an important distribution channel) and the Audiovisual Technical Center (the main institution directed to technological diffusion and training). The city is the location of the majority of studios, AV laboratories and production companies. An important role is played by the Globo Organization, the world 25th entertainment company and the 4th in terms of own content production, with activities in the audiovisual sector ranging from open TV, paid TV to cinema. The study presented represents an attempt of applying the analytical and methodological approach of LIPS and the innovation system perspective to the analysis of the audiovisual system based in Rio de Janeiro, taking it as a point of reference for issues related to the development of the sector in the country. The case of the audiovisual production in Rio de Janeiro is especially interesting for such an analysis, since it encloses several types of activities rooted in a specific territory, as well as an ample network of representative and politic institutions. Together they constitute a complex and unique productive and innovative system with several interconnected processes. Specifically we aim at answering how this system is structured and how specific competences are build, which are determinant for the long run sustainability and competitiveness of this system.