Efficient and robust aircraft landing trajectory optimization
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This thesis addresses the challenges in the efficient and robust generation and optimization of three-dimensional landing trajectories for fixed-wing aircraft subject to prescribed boundary conditions and constraints on maneuverability and collision avoidance. In particular, this thesis focuses on the airliner emergency landing scenario and the minimization of landing time. The main contribution of the thesis is two-fold. First, it provides a hierarchical scheme for integrating the complementary strength of a variety of methods in path planning and trajectory optimization for the improvement in efficiency and robustness of the overall landing trajectory optimization algorithm. The second contribution is the development of new techniques and results in mesh refinement for numerical optimal control, optimal path tracking, and smooth path generation, which are all integrated in a hierarchical scheme and applied to the landing trajectory optimization problem. A density function based grid generation method is developed for the mesh refinement process during numerical optimal control. A numerical algorithm is developed based on this technique for solving general optimal control problems, and is used for optimizing aircraft landing trajectories. A path smoothing technique is proposed for recovering feasibility of the path and improving the tracking performance by modifying the path geometry. The optimal aircraft path tracking problem is studied and analytical results are presented for both the minimum-time, and minimum-energy tracking with fixed time of arrival. The path smoothing and optimal path tracking methods work together with the geometric path planner to provide a set of feasible initial guess to the numerical optimal control algorithm. The trajectory optimization algorithm in this thesis was tested by simulation experiments using flight data from two previous airliner accidents under emergency landing scenarios.The real-time application of the landing trajectory optimization algorithm as part of the aircraft on-board automation avionics system has the potential to provide effective guidelines to the pilots for improving the fuel consumption during normal landing process, and help enhancing flight safety under emergency landing scenarios. The proposed algorithms can also help design optimal take-off and landing trajectories and procedures for airports.