A Review of Fish Ecology Models and an Approach for Integrated Reservoir and Ecological Management
Georgakakos, Aristidis Peter
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Many species of fish have suffered detrimental impacts due to the construction and operation of reservoirs. Life-scientists have utilized three basic methods to attempt to include the needs of riverine ecology in the formulation of reservoir operation policies. (1) Beginning in the 1970's, discharge-based methods used heuristics to determine minimum allowable streamfiows to protect riverine life. (2) Habitat-based models were developed after the shortcomings of minimum allowable streamflow recommendations were realized and as greater knowledge of fish biology and ecology was gained. These models used hydraulic modeling and species- and lifestage-specific habitat preferences to determine quantity and quality of habitat as a function of streamflow. (3) Individual-based models have emerged in the 1990's as further understanding of fish life-processes has accumulated these models track the daily actions and movements of individual organisms. The State of Georgia currently uses a variety of discharge-based methods to determine minimum allowable strearnflows. The opportunity now exists to utilize many new technologies to integrate ecological and other "traditional" objectives in a real-time, operational decision support system. The principal technologies to be exploited include the ELQG algorithm individual-based models, computational fluid dynamics, and geographic information systems.