Force and flow transition in plowed granular media
Umbanhowar, Paul B.
Goldman, Daniel I.
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We use plate drag to study the response of granular media to localized forcing as a function of volume fractionϕ. A bifurcation in the force and flow occurs at the onset of dilatancy ϕ [subscript c]. Below ϕ [subscript c] rapid fluctuations in the drag force F [subscript D] are observed. Above ϕ [subscript c] fluctuations in F [subscript D] are periodic and increase in magnitude with ϕ. Velocity field measurements indicate that the bifurcation in F [subscript D] results from the formation of stable shear bands above ϕ [subscript c] which are created and destroyed periodically during drag. A friction-based wedge flow model captures the dynamics for ϕ >ϕ [subscript c].