Multi-Cue Contingency Detection
Bobick, Aaron F.
Thomaz, Andrea L.
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The ability to detect a human's contingent response is an essential skill for a social robot attempting to engage new interaction partners or maintain ongoing turn-taking interactions. Prior work on contingency detection focuses on single cues from isolated channels, such as changes in gaze, motion, or sound.We propose a framework that integrates multiple cues for detecting contingency from multimodal sensor data in human-robot interaction scenarios. We describe three levels of integration and discuss our method for performing sensor fusion at each of these levels. We perform a Wizard-of-Oz data collection experiment in a turn-taking scenario in which our humanoid robot plays the turn-taking imitation game “Simon says" with human partners. Using this data set, which includes motion and body pose cues from a depth and color image and audio cues from a microphone, we evaluate our contingency detection module with the proposed integration mechanisms and show gains in accuracy of our multi-cue approach over single-cue contingency detection. We show the importance of selecting the appropriate level of cue integration as well as the implications of varying the referent event parameter.