Squaraine dyes for non-linear optics and organic electronics
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This dissertation describes the investigation of the synthesis and characterization of new squaraine-based photonic and electronic materials. In the first part of this thesis, squaraine dyes with large conjugation systems, including extended squaraines consisting of bis(donor)substituted vinylene-heterocycles and bis(indolinylenemethyl)squaraine-based oligomers linking through different π-bridges were designed, synthesized and characterized to exhibit strong two-photon absorption (2PA) for femotosecond and nanosecond optical-power limiting applications in the near-infrared (NIR). One of the dendronized squaraine forms smooth and high optical quality films with large NIR transparency window. In the second part, a series of squaraine- and phthalocyanine-based metal complexes were studied. Those dyes did not show large triplet quantum yield but significantly improved photovoltaic performance compared to the metal-free compounds. In the last part, an effective approach on optimizing bis(indolinylenemethyl)-based squaraine sensitizers with various surface anchor groups and π-linkers, achieved high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 6.7% in liquid dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and 2.7% in solid-state DSSCs, which stand out all the previous reported squaraine-based sensitizers.