Adverse effects of bone morphogenic protein-2 during osseointegration
Hyzy, Sharon Leigh
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Modifications of biomaterial surface properties are employed to increase osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Microtextured metallic surfaces promote osteoblast differentiation and high surface energy- achieved by controlling surface hydrocarbon contamination- increases osteoblast differentiation and peri-implant bone formation. Recombinant human bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) is approved to induce bone formation in a number of applications. It is used clinically in combination with biomaterials to improve peri-implant bone formation and osseointegration. The amount of BMP2 that is required is large and inflammatory (swelling/seroma) and bone-related (ectopic bone/bone resorption) complications have been reported after BMP2 treatment. The aim of this study was to examine potential deleterious effects of BMP2 on the inflammatory environment and apoptosis of osteoblasts. Surface roughness and energy decreased pro-inflammatory interleukins and increased anti-inflammatory interleukins. In contrast, BMP2 abolished the surface effect, increasing pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL) 6, IL8, and IL17 in a surface roughness-dependent fashion and decreasing anti-inflammatory IL10 on rough surfaces. 5Z-7-Oxozeaenol and Dorsomorphin, but not H-8, blocked the effect of BMP2 on IL1A expression. There was an increase in expression of IL6 when treated with BMP2 for the control and H-8 groups, but both 5Z-7-Oxozeaenol and Dorsomorphin blocked the effect. Both 5Z-7-Oxozeaenol and H-8 blocked the effect of BMP2 on IL10 expression. BMP2 treatment had little effect on apoptosis in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Exogenous BMP2 had no effect on TUNEL. Caspase-3 activity was increased only at 200ng/ml BMP2. BAX/BCL2 decreased in MSCs treated with 50 and 100ng/ml BMP2. In contrast, BMP2 increased caspase-3 activity and TUNEL at all doses in normal human osteoblasts (NHOst). BAX/BCL2 increased in NHOst treated with BMP2 in a dose-dependent manner. Cells treated with 200 ng/ml BMP2 had an 8-fold increase in BAX/BCL2 expression in comparison with untreated cells. Similarly, BMP2 increased DNA fragmentation in NHOst cells. The BMP2-induced increase in DNA fragmentation was eliminated by 5-Z7-Oxozeaenol and Dorsomorphin. The results suggest that while surface features modulate an initial controlled inflammatory response, the addition of BMP2 induces a pro-inflammatory response. The effect of BMP2 on apoptosis depends on cell maturation state, inducing apoptosis in committed osteoblasts. BMP2 together with microtextured orthopaedic and dental implants may increase inflammation and possibly delay bone formation. Dose, location, and delivery strategies are important considerations in BMP2 as a therapeutic and must be optimized to minimize complications.