Some contributions to latin hypercube design, irregular region smoothing and uncertainty quantification
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In the first part of the thesis, we propose a new class of designs called multi-layer sliced Latin hypercube design (DSLHD) for running computer experiments. A general recursive strategy for constructing MLSLHD has been developed. Ordinary Latin hypercube designs and sliced Latin hypercube designs are special cases of MLSLHD with zero and one layer respectively. A special case of MLSLHD with two layers, doubly sliced Latin hypercube design, is studied in detail. The doubly sliced structure of DSLHD allows more flexible batch size than SLHD for collective evaluation of different computer models or batch sequential evaluation of a single computer model. Both finite-sample and asymptotical sampling properties of DSLHD are examined. Numerical experiments are provided to show the advantage of DSLHD over SLHD for both sequential evaluating a single computer model and collective evaluation of different computer models. Other applications of DSLHD include design for Gaussian process modeling with quantitative and qualitative factors, cross-validation, etc. Moreover, we also show the sliced structure, possibly combining with other criteria such as distance-based criteria, can be utilized to sequentially sample from a large spatial data set when we cannot include all the data points for modeling. A data center example is presented to illustrate the idea. The enhanced stochastic evolutionary algorithm is deployed to search for optimal design. In the second part of the thesis, we propose a new smoothing technique called completely-data-driven smoothing, intended for smoothing over irregular regions. The idea is to replace the penalty term in the smoothing splines by its estimate based on local least squares technique. A close form solution for our approach is derived. The implementation is very easy and computationally efficient. With some regularity assumptions on the input region and analytical assumptions on the true function, it can be shown that our estimator achieves the optimal convergence rate in general nonparametric regression. The algorithmic parameter that governs the trade-off between the fidelity to the data and the smoothness of the estimated function is chosen by generalized cross validation (GCV). The asymptotic optimality of GCV for choosing the algorithm parameter in our estimator is proved. Numerical experiments show that our method works well for both regular and irregular region smoothing. The third part of the thesis deals with uncertainty quantification in building energy assessment. In current practice, building simulation is routinely performed with best guesses of input parameters whose true value cannot be known exactly. These guesses affect the accuracy and reliability of the outcomes. There is an increasing need to perform uncertain analysis of those input parameters that are known to have a significant impact on the final outcome. In this part of the thesis, we focus on uncertainty quantification of two microclimate parameters: the local wind speed and the wind pressure coefficient. The idea is to compare the outcome of the standard model with that of a higher fidelity model. Statistical analysis is then conducted to build a connection between these two. The explicit form of statistical models can facilitate the improvement of the corresponding modules in the standard model.