Understanding and development of dielectric passivated high efficiency silicon solar cells using spin-on solutions
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In this work, spin-on processes were used to improve front- and rear-side technologies of solar cells to increase efficiencies to >20 %. A limited source diffusion process was developed using phosphoric acid dopant solutions developed in-house. An optimal emitter was obtained to be used in conjunction with screen-printed contacts. This emitter was used to improve the efficiency of conventional full aluminum back surface field solar cells to 19.6 %. A streamlined process was then developed to fabricate high-efficiency dielectric rear passivated cells in a single high temperature step. This process combined the diffusion process described earlier with a spin-on dielectric for rear passivation to achieve solar cell efficiencies of ~20%. Several laser candidates were investigated to improve process reproducibility and throughput. Ultra-violet laser with nanosecond pulse width was identified as the optimal choice. Cell efficiencies of ~20% were reproduced using UV laser for ablation of rear dielectric. This cell design and process were transferred to low-cost low-lifetime commercial grade substrates after identifying the optimal substrate characteristics using modeling.