Treatments of hemi caustic and extractives streams
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Disposal of effluent from pulp and paper industry is one of the major problems faced by entrepreneur in view of increasing environmental standards day by day. In addition to this, industry loses economic value by disposing the effluent or selling it for a low price to other industries. Therefore, to address this problem, in the present study, 2 pulp mill effluents were selected to recover the economic value namely Hemi caustic stream and brown stock filtrate. As far as the recovery of value of hemi caustic stream is concerned, freeze concentration technique was used to recover water in its pure form and membrane separation was used to separate hemi cellulose from effluent so that permeate can be used as a pure source of caustic elsewhere. In addition to this, hemi caustic stream was subjected to acid hydrolysis to convert hemi cellulose into sugars. These sugars can be used to produce bioethanol. As far as the recovery of values of brown stock filtrate is concerned, it was proposed to recycle brown stock filtrate as a source of washing water for brown stock washers in the mill. However, continuous recycling of brown stock filtrate into the process causes building up of extractives in the recycle stream which in turn might deposit on the pulp and affects the quality of the pulp. Therefore, it was decided to separate extractives from the brown stock filtrate before recycle it into the mill. Dissolved Air flotation technique was used to achieve the above mentioned objective. An attempt was made to develop an improved and most reliable version of existing extractives measurement method to quantify the performance of Dissolved air flotation technique.