Reality monitoring, metacognitive accuracy, and aging: expanding the view on age-related deficits for source information
Sinclair, Starlette M.
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The research presented here focused primarily on an attempt to bridge the two literatures of source memory and metameory on the topic of 'monitoring'. The contributions were two-fold: an investigation of the viability of a metacognitive judgment for SM: the judgment of source learning (JOSL), and a simultaneous investigation of the relationship of age and 'monitoring' in source memory and metacognition. In the first experiment, young participants (18-25 years of age) were asked to predict (using JOSLs) whether they would be able to discriminate between pictures that were presented to them during study, images of words they generated during study, or words they never studied in a later memory test. Participants made either immediate or delayed JOSLs (on a 0-100 scale) for each item presented during the study phase. Experiment 2 was a cross-sectional study comparing young and old adults (60-80 years of age) using a modified version of the previous task. In both experiments, intraindividual correlations of JOSLs with SM (gammas) indicated that delayed JOSLs were accurate predictors of future SM performance. There were no effects of age on gamma correlations of JOSLs with SM. Based on these results, although SM showed an age-related deficit, metacognitive predictions of SM did not show this same effect.