Pattern-integrated interference lithography: single-exposure formation of photonic-crystal lattices with integrated functional elements
Burrow, Guy Matthew
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A new type of photolithography, Pattern-Integrated Interference Lithography (PIIL), was demonstrated. PIIL is the first-ever integration of pattern imaging with interference lithography in a single-exposure step. The result is an optical-intensity distribution composed of a subwavelength periodic lattice with integrated functional circuit elements. To demonstrate the PIIL method, a Pattern-Integrated Interference Exposure System (PIIES) was developed that incorporates a projection imaging capability in a novel three-beam interference configuration. The purpose of this system was to fabricate, in a single-exposure step, representative photonic-crystal structures. Initial experimental results have confirmed the PIIL concept, demonstrating the potential application of PIIL in nano-electronics, photonic crystals, biomedical structures, optical trapping, metamaterials, and in numerous subwavelength structures. In the design of the PIIES configuration, accurate motif geometry models were developed for the 2D plane-group symmetries possible via linearly-polarized three-beam interference, optimized for maximum absolute contrast and primitive-lattice-vector direction equal contrast. Next, a straightforward methodology was presented to facilitate a thorough analysis of effects of parametric constraints on interference-pattern symmetries, motif geometries, and their absolute contrasts. With this information, the design of the basic PIIES configuration was presented along with a model that simulates the resulting optical-intensity distribution at the system sample plane. Appropriate performance metrics were defined in order to quantify the characteristics of the resulting photonic-crystal structure.