Non-photorealistic rendering with coherence for augmented reality
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A seamless blending of the real and virtual worlds is key to increased immersion and improved user experiences for augmented reality (AR). Photorealistic and non-photorealistic rendering (NPR) are two ways to achieve this goal. Non-photorealistic rendering creates an abstract and stylized version of both the real and virtual world, making them indistinguishable. This could be particularly useful in some applications (e.g., AR/VR aided machine repair, or for virtual medical surgery) or for certain AR games with artistic stylization. Achieving temporal coherence is a key challenge for all NPR algorithms. Rendered results are temporally coherent when each frame smoothly and seamlessly transitions to the next one without visual flickering or artifacts that distract the eye from perceived smoothness. NPR algorithms with coherence are interesting in both general computer graphics and AR/VR areas. Rendering stylized AR without coherence processing causes the final results to be visually distracting. While various NPR algorithms with coherence support have been proposed in general graphics community for video processing, many of these algorithms require thorough analysis of all frames of the input video and cannot be directly applied to real-time AR applications. We have investigated existing NPR algorithms with coherence in both general graphics and AR/VR areas. These algorithms are divided into two categories: Model Space and Image Space. We present several NPR algorithms with coherence for AR: a watercolor inspired NPR algorithm, a painterly rendering algorithm, and NPR algorithms in the model space that can support several styling effects.