Silanes in sustainable synthesis: applications in polymer grafting, carbon dioxide capture, and gold nanoparticle synthesis
Nixon, Emily Cummings
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Vinyltrialkoxysilanes are grafted onto polyolefins via a radical mechanism; in a subsequent step, the pendant alkoxysilanes hydrolyze and condense upon exposure to water, resulting formation of crosslinks. Straight chain hydrocarbons were used as model compounds to investigate the regioselectivity of vinyltrimethoxysilane grafting. To stabilize the water-sensitive grafted products, the methoxy groups were substituted using phenyllithium. It was found that this reaction must be carried out for a minimum of three days to ensure full substitution. The grafted products were then separated on a weight basis using semi-preparative HPLC. Analysis of the di-grafted fraction using edited HSQC and HSQC-TOCSY NMR showed that radical propagation occurs via 1,4- and 1,5-intramolecular hydrogen shifts along the hydrocarbon backbone, resulting in multiple grafts per backbone. Post-combustion carbon capture targets CO₂ emissions from large point sources for capture and sequestration. A new class of potential carbon capture agents known as reversible ionic liquids (RevILs) has been synthesized and evaluated in terms of potential performance parameters (e.g. CO₂ capacity, viscosity, enthalpy of regeneration). These RevILs are silylated amines, which react with CO₂ to form a salt comprising an ammonium cation and a carbamate anion that is liquid at room temperature. Structural modifications of the basic silylamine skeleton result in drastic differences in the performance of the resulting RevIL. Systematic variation of the silylated amines allowed determination of a structure-property relationship, and continued iterations will allow development of an ideal candidate for scale-up. The properties and potential applications of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) are highly dependent on their size and shape. These properties are commonly controlled during liquid-phase synthesis through the use of capping agents, which must be removed following synthesis. Reverse micelles can also be used to control the morphology of AuNP during their synthesis. When RevILs are used in the formation of these reverse micelles, either as the disperse phase or as the surfactant, the built-in switch can be used to release the nanoparticles following their synthesis. This release on command could decrease the post-synthetic steps required to clean and purify AuNP prior to use. We have successfully synthesized AuNP using a number of different RevILs.