Thermal metrology techniques for ultraviolet light emitting diodes
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AlₓGa₁₋ₓN (x>0.6) based Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes (UV LEDs) emit in the UV C range of 200 - 290 nm and suffer from low external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of less than 3%. This low EQE is representative of a large number of non-radiative recombination events in the multiple quantum well (MQW) layers, which leads to high device temperatures due to self-heating at the device junction. Knowledge of the device temperature is essential to implement and evaluate appropriate thermal management techniques, in order to mitigate optical degradation and lifetime reduction due to thermal overstress. The micro-scale nature of these devices and the presence of large temperature gradients in the multilayered device structure merit the use of several indirect temperature measurement techniques to resolve device temperatures. This work will study UV LEDs with AlₓGa₁₋ₓN active layers, grown on sapphire or AlN growth substrates, and flip-chip mounted onto submounts and package configurations with different thermal properties. Thermal metrology results will be presented for devices with different electrode geometries (i.e., interdigitated and micropixel), for bulk and thinned growth substrates. The body of this work will present a comparative study of optical techniques such as Infrared (IR), micro-Raman and Electroluminescence (EL) spectroscopy for the thermal metrology of UV LEDs. The presence of horizontal and vertical temperature gradients within the device layers will be studied using micro-Raman spectroscopy, while the occurrence of thermal anomalies such as hotspots and shorting paths will be studied using IR spectroscopy. The Forward Voltage (Vf) method, an electrical junction temperature measurement technique, will also be investigated. The Vf method will be applied to the Thermal Resistance Analysis by Induced Transient (TRAIT) procedure, whereby electrical data at short time scales from an operational device will be used to discretize the junction-to- package thermal resistance pathway from the total junction- to-ambient heat path. The TRAIT procedure will be conducted on several LEDs, for comparison. The scope and applicability of each thermal metrology technique will be examined, and the merits and demerits of each technique will be exhibited.