LC-tank CMOS Voltage-Controlled Oscillators using High Quality Inductor Embedded in Advanced Packaging Technologies
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This dissertation focuses on high-performance LC-tank CMOS VCO design at 2 GHz. The high-Q inductors are realized using wiring metal lines in advanced packages. Those inductors are used in the resonator of the VCO to achieve low phase noise, low power consumption, and a wide frequency tuning range. In this dissertation, a fine-pitch ball-grid array (FBGA) package, a multichip module (MCM)-L package, and a wafer-level package (WLP) are incorporated to realize the high-Q inductor. The Q-factors of inductors embedded in packages are compared to those of inductors monolithically integrated on Si and GaAs substrates. All the inductors are modeled with a physical, simple, equivalent two-port model for the VCO design as well as for phase noise analysis. The losses in an LC-tank are analyzed from the phase noise perspective. For the implementation of VCOs, the effects of the interconnection between the embedded inductor and the VCO circuit are investigated. The VCO using the on-chip inductors is designed as a reference. The performance of VCOs using the embedded inductor in a FBGA and a WLP is compared with that of a VCO using the on-chip inductor. The VCO design is optimized from the high-Q perspective to enhance performance. Through this optimization, less phase noise, lower power consumption, and a wider frequency tuning range are obtained simultaneously.