Integrating Auditory Warnings with Tactile Cues in Multimodal Displays for Challenging Environments
In battlefield environments of the future, auditory warnings may be integrated with tactile cues in multimodal displays. The U.S. Army is exploring the use of audio and tactile multimodal displays in applications such as the human robotic interface (HRI) to enhance Soldier performance in controlling battlefield robots. Particularly important issues in the Army HRI, as in many challenging environments, include maintaining user spatial situation awareness and providing warning signals for safety hazards. This paper will describe current research in audio and tactile display design for HRI and other applications. Best practices for integrating audio with tactile signals will be described, as well as design issues that need to be resolved.