MRI methods for predicting response to cardiac resynchronization therapy
Suever, Jonathan D.
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Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) is a treatment option for heart failure patients with ventricular dyssynchrony. CRT corrects for dyssynchrony by electrically stimulating the septal and lateral walls of the left ventricle (LV), forcing synchronous con- traction and improving cardiac output. Current selection criteria for CRT rely upon the QRS duration, measured from a surface electrocardiogram, as a marker of electrical dyssynchrony. Unfortunately, 30-40% of patients undergoing CRT fail to benefit from the treatment. A multitude of studies have shown that presence of mechanical dyssynchrony in the LV is an important factor in determining if a patient will benefit from CRT. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that patient response can be improved by placing the LV pacing lead in the most dyssynchronous or latest contracting segment. The overall goal of this project was to develop methods that allow for accurate assessment and display of regional mechanical dyssynchrony throughout the LV and at the site of the LV pacing lead. To accomplish this goal, we developed a method for quantifying regional dyssynchrony from standard short-axis cine magnetic resonance (MR) images. To assess the effects of LV lead placement, we developed a registration method that allows us to project the LV lead location from dual-plane fluoroscopy onto MR measurements of cardiac function. By applying these techniques in patients undergoing CRT, we were able to investigate the relationship between regional dyssynchrony, LV pacing lead location, and CRT response.