Opportunistic large array (OLA)-based routing for sensor and adhoc wireless networks
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An Opportunistic Large Array (OLA) is a form of cooperative diversity in which a large group of simple, inexpensive relays operate without any mutual coordination, but naturally fire together in response to the energy received from a single source or another OLA. The main contributions of this thesis are the introduction of two OLA-based routing protocols: OLA Concentric Routing Algorithm (OLACRA), which is an upstream routing algorithm suitable for static wireless sensor networks (WSNs), and OLA Routing On-Demand (OLAROAD), which is a robust reactive routing scheme suitable for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). In fixed multi-hop wireless sensor networks with a single sink, where energy conservation is often a concern, simulations of the new algorithms show as much as 80% of the transmit energy required to broadcast data can be saved, relative to existing OLA-based broadcasting approaches. In MANETs, where robustness of the routes is an important performance indicator, OLAROAD-based cooperative routes last much longer compared to their state-of-art multi-hop non-cooperative transmission (CT)-based counterparts. However, OLACRA and OLAROAD have higher node participation, and thereby lower throughput, in comparison with the non-CT schemes. To improve the throughput, and thereby bandwidth utilization, the properties of uplink OLAs and their suppression regions are carefully studied. Based on the observations, Hop-Optimized OLACRA (HOLA), which is a variant of OLACRA, and has the maximum bandwidth utilization amongst all the OLA unicast schemes studied, is proposed. HOLA routes have bandwidth utilization comparable to non-CT schemes, but a much lower (~10 dB less) transmit power per node. The last section of this thesis treats the MAC design for OLA-based networks. In contrast to non-CT networks, a 802.11-based RTS/CTS MAC scheme is shown to reduce the reliability in OLA unicast schemes. A distributed cluster-head-based MAC scheme for channel reservation and OLA Size Adaptation Mechanism for link repair/maintenance are proposed for OLA-based networks. The performances of these protocols are shown to be comparable to a non-CT multihop scheme using the RTS/CTS/DATA/ACK handshake-based link layer design.