Physics Based Reliability Assessment of Embedded Passives
Damani, Manoj Kumar
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Multilayer embedded passives (resistors, inductors, and capacitors) on a printed wiring board can help to meet high performance requirements at a low cost and at a smaller size. Such an integration of embedded passives has new challenges with respect to design, materials, manufacturing, thermal management and reliability. As the area of integral passives on printed circuit boards is relatively new, there is inadequate literature on the thermo-mechanical reliability of integral passives. Therefore, there is a compelling need to understand the thermo-mechanical reliability of integral passives through the development of physics-based models as well as through experiments, and this thesis aims to develop such an experimental and theoretical program to study the thermo-mechanical reliability of integral passives.. As integral passives are often composite layers with dissimilar material properties compared to the other layers in the integral substrate, it is essential to ensure that RLC characteristics of the embedded passives do not deteriorate with thermal cycling due to thermo-mechanical deformations. This thesis aims to study the changes in the passive characteristics due to the thermally-induced deformations. Embedded capacitors and inductors have been looked at specifically in this research. Multi-field physics-based models have been constructed to determine the change in electrical parameters after thermal cycling. The thermo-mechanical models assume direction-dependent material properties for the board substrate and interconnect copper layers and temperature-dependent properties for interlayer dielectric and passive layers. Using the deformed geometry, the electrical characteristics have been determined at low frequency. In parallel to the models, test vehicle substrates have been subjected to 1000 thermal cycles between -55??o 125??nd high humidity and temperature conditions at 85??5RH for 500 hours, and it has been observed that there are significant changes in the electrical parameters. The results obtained from the physics-based simulations have been validated against the measured electrical characteristics from the fabricated functional test boards that have been thermal cycled.