High Curie Temperature Bismuth- and Indium- Substituted Lead Titanate
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The extent of BiInO3 substitution in the perovskite system xBiInO3-(1-x)PbTiO3 and the corresponding raise in the Curie temperature were investigated using thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. Maximum tetragonal perovskite distortion (c/a = 1.082) was obtained for x=0.20, with a corresponding Curie temperature of 582C. Phase-pure tetragonal perovskite was obtained for x less than 0.25. Compound formation after calcining mixed oxide powders resulted in agglomerated cube-shaped tetragonal perovskite particles, which could be fired to 94.7% of theoretical density (TD) by crushing after calcining, dry pressing and firing. Sol-gel fabrication resulted in nano-sized tetragonal or pseudo-cubic perovskite particles, which after two-step firing, resulted in a tetragonal perovskite microstructure at as high as (x=0.25) 98.2% of TD.