Digital Predistortion of Power Amplifiers for Wireless Applications
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Digital predistortion is one of the most cost effective ways among all linearization techniques. However, most of the existing designs treat the power amplifier as a memoryless device. For wideband or high power applications, the power amplifier exhibits memory effects, for which memoryless predistorters can achieve only limited linearization performance. In this dissertation, we propose novel predistorters and their parameter extraction algorithms. We investigate a Hammerstein predistorter, a memory polynomial predistorter, and a new combined model based predistorter. The Hammerstein predistorter is designed specifically for power amplifiers that can be modeled as a Wiener system. The memory polynomial predistorter can correct both the nonlinear distortions and the linear frequency response that may exist in the power amplifier. Real-time implementation aspects of the memory polynomial predistorter are also investigated. The new combined model includes the memory polynomial model and the Murray Hill model, thus extending the predistorter's ability to compensate for strong memory effects in the power amplifier. The predistorter models considered in this dissertation include both even- and odd-order nonlinear terms. By including these even-order nonlinear terms, we have a richer basis set, which offers appreciable improvement. In reality, however, the performance of a predistortion system can also be affected by the analog imperfections in the transmitter, which are introduced by the analog components; mostly analog filters and quadrature modulators. There are two common configurations for the upconversion chain in the transmitter: two-stage upconversion and direct upconversion. For a two-stage upconversion transmitter, we design a band-limited equalizer to compensate for the frequency response of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) filter which is usually employed in the IF stage. For a direct upconversion transmitter, we develop a model to describe the frequency-dependent gain/phase imbalance and dc offset. We then develop two methods to construct compensators for the imbalance and dc offset. These compensation techniques help to correct for the analog imperfections, which in turn improve the overall predistortion performance.