Active Safety Leading Indicators for Human-Equipment Interaction on Construction Sites
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The U.S. construction industry continues to rank as one of the most dangerous work environments when compared to other industrial sectors. Construction companies are required to record and report lagging safety leading indicators including fatalities, injuries, and illnesses. Safety leading indicators provide an opportunity to identify construction site hazards and hazardous worker behavior before a fatality, injury, or illness occurs. Further improvements are also necessary for construction safety through the use of technology. The application of advanced or emerging technologies can have a significant role in enhancing construction worker safety performance. This research seeks to report and analyze safety leading indicators, specifically near misses. Furthermore, technologies capable of providing alerts in real-time to construction equipment operators and ground workers during hazardous proximity situations are reviewed. A testing method for proximity detection and alert devices for the construction environment is presented. Operator visibility, including impacts of design components, is also measured and analyzed. One major contribution of this research is the creation of a near miss reporting program ready for implementation for construction companies. Other research contributions include understanding of impacts of design on operator visibility, scientific evaluation data of proximity sensing technology, and a test method for proximity detection and alert system deployed in the construction environment. Research findings can be disseminated for improved construction worker safety education and training.