Multi-Scale Fracture Creation and Network Generation During Hydraulic Fracturing
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Here we describe both a sequential, hierarchical multi-scale approach for designing scale-dependent constitutive models at different levels of refinement in the problem as well as an open-source, massively parallel software platform (GEOS) used for implementing the approach. General cross-scale coupling is achieved through a variety of terms, which are tailored to the specific physical mechanisms involved. The focus in this paper is on the specific state of fracture and damage propagation under fluid forcing, including seismic source generation, directionality and criteria for nucleation and growth, especially in the presence of multi-scale discontinuities. To address computational complexity issues, we discuss strategies for handling under-resolution at the crack tip and the design of phenomenological models based on finer scale considerations in two dimensions. We also discuss progress on approaching the three dimensional case as well as preliminary results of simulations to predict the evolution of microseismicity resultant from progressive damage under changing subsurface stress and hydrological conditions.