Robust state estimation for the control of flexible robotic manipulators
Post, Brian Karl
MetadataShow full item record
In this thesis, a novel robust estimation strategy for observing the system state variables of robotic manipulators with distributed flexibility is established. Motivation for the derived approach stems from the observation that lightweight, high speed, and large workspace robotic manipulators often suffer performance degradation because of inherent structural compliance. This flexibility often results in persistent residual vibration, which must be damped before useful work can resume. Inherent flexibility in robotic manipulators, then, increases cycle times and shortens the operational lives of the robots. Traditional compensation techniques, those which are commonly used for the control of rigid manipulators, can only approach a fraction of the open-loop system bandwidth without inducing significant excitation of the resonant dynamics. To improve the performance of these systems, the structural flexibility cannot simply be ignored, as it is when the links are significantly stiff and approximate rigid bodies. One thus needs a model to design a suitable compensator for the vibration, but any model developed to correct this problem will contain parametric error. And in the case of very lightly damped systems, like flexible robotic manipulators, this error can lead to instability of the control system for even small errors in system parameters. This work presents a systematic solution for the problem of robust state estimation for flexible manipulators in the presence of parametric modeling error. The solution includes: 1) a modeling strategy, 2) sensor selection and placement, and 3) a novel, multiple model estimator. Modeling of the FLASHMan flexible gantry manipulator is accomplished using a developed hybrid transfer matrix / assumed modes method (TMM/AMM) approach to determine an accurate low-order state space representation of the system dynamics. This model is utilized in a genetic algorithm optimization in determining the placement of MEMs accelerometers for robust estimation and observability of the system’s flexible state variables. The initial estimation method applied to the task of determining robust state estimates under conditions of parametric modeling error was of a sliding mode observer type. Evaluation of the method through analysis, simulations and experiments showed that the state estimates produced were inadequate. This led to the development of a novel, multiple model adaptive estimator. This estimator utilizes a bank of similarly designed sub-estimators and a selection algorithm to choose the true value from a given set of possible system parameter values as well as the correct state vector estimate. Simulation and experimental results are presented which demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the derived method for the task of state variable estimation for flexible robotic manipulators.