Robust forward invariant sets for nonlinear systems
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The process of quantifying the robustness of a given nonlinear system is not necessarily trivial. If the dynamics of the system in question are not sufficiently involved, then a tight estimate of a bound on system performance may be obtained. As the dynamics of the system concerned become more and more involved, it is often found that using the results existing in the literature provides a very conservative bound on system performance. Therefore, the motivation for this work is to develop a general method to obtain a less conservative estimate of a bound on system performance, compared to the results already available in literature. The scope of this work is limited to two dimensions at present. Note that working in a two dimensional space does not necessarily make the objective easily achievable. This is because quantifying the robustness of a general nonlinear system perturbed by disturbances can very easily become intractable, even on a space with dimension as low as two. The primary contribution of this work is a computational algorithm, the points generated by which are conjectured to lie on the boundary of the smallest robust forward invariant set for a given nonlinear system. A well known path-planning algorithm, available in existing literature, is leveraged to make the algorithm developed computationally efficient. If the system dynamics are not accurately known, then the above computed approximation of an invariant set may cease to be invariant over the given finite time interval for which the computed set is expected to be invariant. Therefore, the secondary contribution of this work is an algorithm monitoring a computed approximation of an invariant set. It is shown that for a certain type of systems, this secondary monitoring algorithm can be used to detect that a computed approximation of an invariant set is about to cease to be invariant, even if the primary algorithm computed the set based on an unsophisticated dynamical model of a system under consideration. The work related to computing approximations of invariant sets is tested mainly with the curve tracking problem in two dimensions. The algorithm monitoring whether a computed approximation of an invariant set is about to cease to be invariant is inspired by work related to detecting Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery terminal voltage collapse detection.