The evaluation of novel anti-inflammatory compounds in cell culture and experimental arthritis and identification of an inhibitor to early-stage loblolly pine somatic embryo growth
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The interactions between the immune and nervous systems play an important role in immune and inflammatory conditions. Substance P (SP), the unidecapeptide RPKPQQFFGLM-NH2, is known to upregulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. We report here that 5 (Acetylamino) 4 oxo-6-phenyl-2-hexenoic acid methyl ester (AOPHA-Me) and 4 phenyl 3 butenoic acid (PBA), two anti-inflammatory compounds developed in our laboratory, reduce SP stimulated TNF-α expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages. We also show that AOPHA Me and PBA both inhibit SP stimulated phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK. Furthermore, molecular modeling studies indicate that both AOPHA Me and PBA dock at the ATP binding site of apoptosis signal regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) with predicted docking energies of -7.0 kcal/mol and 5.9 kcal/mol, respectively; this binding overlaps with that of staurosporine, a known inhibitor of ASK1. Taken together, these findings support the conclusion that AOPHA Me and PBA inhibition of TNF-α expression in SP-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages is a consequence of the inhibition JNK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. We have previously shown that AOPHA-Me and PBA inhibit the amidative bioactivation of SP, which also would be expected to decrease formation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is conceivable that this dual action of inhibiting amidation and MAPK phosphorylation may be of some advantage in enhancing the anti-inflammatory activity of a therapeutic molecule. We also encapsulated AOPHA-Me separately in polyketal and poly(lactic co glycolic acid) microparticles. The in-vitro release profiles of AOPHA-Me from these particles were characterized. We have also shown that AOPHA-Me, when encapsulated in PCADK microparticles, is an effective treatment for edema induced by adjuvant arthritis in rats. In separate work, it was determined that myo inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6 hexakisphosphate is an inhibitor to early-stage Loblolly pine somatic embryo growth. In addition, it was determined that muco inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6 hexakisphosphate is not an inhibitor to early-stage Loblolly pine somatic embryo growth. These experiments demonstrate the stereochemical dependence of myo inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6 hexakisphosphates inhibitory activity.