Dynamics of variable density ratio reacting jets in unsteady, vitiated crossflow
Wilde, Benjamin R.
MetadataShow full item record
Jet in crossflow (JICF) configurations are often used for secondary fuel injection in staged-fuel combustion systems. The high temperature, vitiated crossflow in these systems is inherently unsteady and characterized by random, turbulent fluctuations and coherent, acoustic oscillations. This thesis presents the results of an experimental investigation into the dynamics of non-reacting and reacting jets injected into unsteady, vitiated crossflow. The flow structure and flame stabilization of jets with different momentum flux and density ratios relative to the crossflow are characterized using simultaneous time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) synchronized with OH planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF). A modified trajectory scaling law is developed to account for the influence of near-field heat release on the jet trajectory. The second part of this work focuses on the response of a JICF to crossflow forcing. Acoustic drivers are used to excite natural resonances of the facility, which are characterized using the two-microphone method. Spectral analysis of SPIV results shows that, while the jet response to crossflow velocity fluctuations is often negligible, the fluctuating crossflow pressure induces a significant fluctuating jet exit velocity, which leads to periodic jet flapping. The flame response to crossflow forcing is studied using flame edge tracking. An analytical model is developed that predicts the dependence of the jet injector impedance upon important JICF parameters. In the final part of this work, vortex tracking and Mie scattering flow visualization are used to investigate the effect of near-field heat release on the shear layer dynamics. A phenomenological model is developed to explain the effect of combustion on the shear layer stability of density stratified, reacting JICF. The results of this study demonstrate the important effects of near-field heat release and crossflow acoustics on the dynamics of reacting JICF.