Essential roles of Pdia3/PLAA receptor complex and CaMKII IN 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ and Wnt5a calcium-dependent signaling pathways in osteoblasts and chondrocytes
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The vitamin D metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)2D3] plays an important role in the regulation of musculoskeletal growth and differentiation. 1α,25(OH)2D3 mediates its effects on cells, including chondrocytes and osteoblasts, through the classical nuclear 1α,25(OH)2D3 receptor. Additionally, recent evidence indicates that several cellular responses to 1α,25(OH)2D3 are mediated via a rapid, calcium-dependent membrane-mediated pathway. These actions of 1α,25(OH)2D3 can be blocked by antibodies to protein-disulfide isomerase family A, member 3 (Pdia3), indicating that it is part of the receptor complex; however, the pathway which is activated by this receptor is not fully understood. The overall goal of this thesis was to examine the roles of phospholipase A2 activating protein (PLAA) and calcium calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) in 1α,25(OH)2D3 rapid membrane-mediated signaling. We further investigated the interaction between two pathways regulating growth plate cartilage and endochondral bone formation, 1α,25(OH)2D3 and Wnt5a, at the receptor complex level. Results indicated that PLAA was required for mediating 1α,25(OH)2D3 signal from Pdia3. Furthermore, CaM and CaMKII were identified as mediators of 1α,25(OH)2D3-stimulated PLAA-dependent activation of cPLA2 and PKCα, and downstream biological effects. Wnt5a and 1α,25(OH)2D3 are important regulators of endochondral bone formation. This study demonstrated that 1α,25(OH)2D3 and Wnt5a mediate their effects via similar receptor components in osteoblasts and chondrocytes suggesting that these pathways may interact.