Millimeter-wave integrated circuit design in silicon-germanium technology for next generation radars
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In this thesis, the circuits which comprise the front-end of a millimeter-wave transmit-receive module are investigated using a state-of-the-art 90 nm SiGe BiCMOS process for use in radar remote sensing applications. In Chapter I, the motivation for a millimeter-wave radar in the context of space-based remote sensing is discussed. In addition, an overview of Silicon-germanium technology is presented, and the chapter concludes with a discussion of design challenges at millimeter-wave frequencies. In Chapter II, a brief history of radar technology is presented - the motivations leading to the development of the transmit-receive module for active electronically scanned arrays are discussed, and the critical components which reside in nearly every high-frequency transmit-receive module are introduced. In Chapter III, the design and results of a W-band single-pole, double-throw switch using SiGe p-i-n diodes are discussed. In particular, the design topology and methods used to achieve low-loss and high power handling over a wide matching bandwidth without sacrificing isolation are described. In Chapter IV, the design and results of a W-band low-noise amplifier using SiGe HBT's are discussed. The design methodologies used to achieve high gain and exceptional noise performance over a wide matching bandwidth are described. Concluding remarks and a discussion of future work are in Chapter V.