Scanning probe microscopic study of piezotronics and triboelectrification for their applications in mechanical sensing
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Scanning probe microscopy was employed to characterize the piezotronic effect in both longitudinal and transverse force sensing modes in CdSe, and GaN nanowires, respectively. Both experimental results show exponential response of their conductivity change to applied forces. Theoretical models are also presented to explain this mechanism and quantify the relationship, where strain induced piezoelectric polarization changes the metal-semiconductor Schottky barrier height. An in-situ method based on SPM is developed to characterize the triboelectric process, including tribo-charge intensity, multi-cycle friction effect, as well as its surface diffusion. Beyond that, effect of external electric field was investigated as an approach to manipulate the polarization and intensity. Finally, a concept of self-powered motion sensing technology is developed and demonstrated experimentally with nanometer resolution, long working distance as well as high robustness. It provides a promising solution for application areas that need ultra-low power consumption devices.