High-capacity communication systems using advanced optical and wireless technologies
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The increasing traffic demand from the use of 3G/4G, streaming, and other broadband wireless services exposes existing bottlenecks in the communications infrastructure and the coordination between the wireless network and its wired counterpart. While wireless systems are constantly evolving to newer generations and higher capacities, their supporting wired networks urgently require advancements in both architecture design and enabling technologies. New optical access systems specifically tailored for the unique natures of various wireless standards are investigated. This dissertation presents the design and experimental verification of high-capacity optical-wireless communication systems using advanced electrical and optical technologies. Technologies such as high level modulation and multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) to increase the spectral efficiency is approaching the Shannon limit. New frequency bands with larger bandwidth are to be explored; for example, millimetre wave (mm-wave) spectrum range (30-300 GHz), especially the license-free spectrum located in 60 GHz. Although fiber-optic systems excel in the high-bandwidth core network, as bandwidth demand increases, more and more progress has been made towards the usage of fiber in the last mile. Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) technology has been proposed as a cost-effective optical access solution to support high-speed wireless communications, especially at the mm-wave band. Signal processing and coordination are centralized at the central office (CO), making the system economical and simple to build, operate, and maintain. Moreover, RoF systems are capable of delivering radio signals with different frequencies and protocols simultaneously. Therefore, the advantage of integrated fiber wireless systems leads to the first research topic of this dissertation: multi-band multi-service RoF systems. With an emphasis on the uniformity of the RoF platform that accommodates both legacy wireless services and advanced mm-wave services, the first part of the dissertation presents two schemes - analog all-band RoF and band-mapped 60-GHz RoF - to cover distinct application scenarios. In the all-band RoF access architecture, lower RF signals, such as Wi-Fi and cellular signals, and 60-GHz signal are transmitted at their original carrier frequencies for both indoor and outdoor coverages. On the other hand, the band-mapped mm-wave RoF scheme, fully utilizing the wide 7-GHz bandwidth at 60 GHz, delivers multiple converged high-speed services only through 60-GHz wireless link, which is especially suited for in-building broadband wireless access. The experimental verification of an all-band RoF system featuring relaxed component requirement is introduced, followed by a real-time multi-service demonstration in the proposed band-mapped 60-GHz RoF system. This dissertation also presents the design, analysis, and experimental demonstration of next-generation high-capacity cellular networks to keep up with the ever-growing bandwidth demand and performance requirements. New mobile backhaul (MBH) architectures based on orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) are proposed along with a simple and low-latency clock distribution and recovery scheme. The transmission of OFDMA signals in the dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) network with flexible clock rates and DSP-free clock recovery is implemented. Also, a spectrally-efficient, low-complexity clock distribution and recovery scheme for OFDMA-based MBH in coherent ultra-dense WDM (UDWDM) system is demonstrated. Finally, mobile fronthaul (MFH) architectures based on subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) technology, which significantly reduces the requirements on both the number of wavelengths per cell site and the optical bandwidth of the optical transceivers, are systematically investigated. Additionally, two upstream schemes, tailored for the uplink (UL), are introduced to maintain low complexity, and more importantly, to achieve high spectral efficiency by wavelength sharing. Therefore, Internet-access-oriented optical-wireless systems using Wi-Fi and other emerging mm-wave technologies are developed along with the optical fronthaul and backhaul for cellular networks in this dissertation. Moreover, with the proposed techniques, heterogeneous networks can be seamlessly provided even with different services, radio nodes, and performance requirements.