Copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition with membrane bound lipid substrates
Beveridge, Jennifer Marie
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The bioorthogonal copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction exhibits complex but well-defined kinetics in aqueous and organic solution for soluble azides, alkynes, and ligand-bound copper(I). The kinetic profile in two dimensions, however, for CuAAC systems within a lipid bilayer membrane, has yet to be defined. The effect of triazole formation with lipid membrane-bound components on membrane properties such as fluidity and permeability is also of interest. Azide- and alkyne-functionalized lysolipids were synthesized and incorporated into non-fluid vesicles, which were then subject to CuAAC. The rate order for membrane-bound lipid substrates in non-fluid vesicles was observed to be comperable to that of the reaction in solution. Reactions between vesicles showed evidence of lipid transfer between non-fluid membranes, which has not been previously reported. For intervesicular and intravesicular reactions in non-fluid membranes, the observed reactivity was found to be opposite that of previously published reactions between nucleophiles and electrophiles in fluid lipid systems. Applications of this work include the potential for novel symmetric membrane leaflet labeling, bioorthogonal manipulation of cell and tissue function, and the creation of membranes with precisely controlled properties that may not be available in naturally-occurring membranes.