Wireless communication impact of high-voltage corona formation on an antenna
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Owing to their inherent isolation and ability for remote interrogation, wireless sensors are an effective way to monitor the operation of high-voltage power transmission lines. A wireless sensor on a high-voltage line has the potential to form corona discharges, particularly on an exposed antenna. The effects of corona formation on the antenna of a wireless radio frequency (RF) communication system were studied. The physics of corona plasma formation and charge composition was analyzed, leading to a theoretical understanding of corona interaction with the antenna. Through a series of high-voltage experiments, the effects of corona on the impedance and gain of an antenna, as well as the RF interference generated by corona current pulses, were identified. RF interference and low-frequency corona current were observed to have the largest impact on a wireless RF system. Corona was found to have no significant impact on the impedance or gain of an antenna. Based on the results, design guidelines were proposed for an antenna and RF front end to be used in wireless high-voltage sensing applications.