Impact of stochastic renewable distributed generation on urban distribution networks
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The main objective of this study is to analyze the impact of the stochastic renewable distributed generation (DG) system on the urban distribution network. Renewable DG systems, particularly photovoltaic (PV) systems, dispersed on the distribution network may, in spite of their relatively small individual capacities, change the behavior of such a network. Therefore, this study (1) developed tools and algorithms useful for planning, designing, and operating such a network, (2) addressed some of the issues in the analysis of the impact of renewable DG systems on such a network, and (3) designed a framework for streamlining the future development and the smooth integration of renewable DG systems into the urban distribution network. For this purpose, in Task 1, using the backward and forward sweep method implemented in MATLAB, this study developed an algorithm for three-phase power flow that models power system components, including distribution systems, transformers, and PV systems. To model the influence of the inherent uncertainty of the input, the location, and the capacity of the PV system, this study implemented a stochastic simulation algorithm combined with the power-flow algorithm. It also accelerated the stochastic algorithm using a method of variance reduction, including importance sampling, and the sampling of representative clusters and extreme points, which reduced the extremely heavy computational burden that the stochastic simulation inevitably imposed. Then this study analyzed inherent uncertainties such as the inputs, the locations, and the capacities of residential PV systems stochastically installed on urban distribution networks by performing several stochastic simulations. In Task 2, this study developed a genetic algorithm in MATLAB that solves an optimization problem that maximizes the reliability (or minimizes the frequency and the duration of failure) of urban distribution networks enhanced by protection devices (i.e., the recloser, the fuse, and the switch) and renewable DG. Using the backward and forward method, this study implemented an analytical method that simulates all possible permanent and transient faults and evaluated the reliability of an urban distribution network housing a combination of fuses, switches, reclosers, and DG systems. Then it analyzed the impact of both the DG system, including the effect of the islanded operation of the DG system, and the protection device, on the reliability of the urban distribution network. The objective of Task 3 of this study was to present a useful method for analyzing the impact of geographically dispersed DG systems, particularly PV systems, on statewide and nationwide power grids. Using the methods of Lagrangian optimization and hydrothermal coordination, this study developed an algorithm for environmentally constrained generation resource allocation that minimizes both fuel costs and ecological impact, including the cost and the impact of water consumption. Then, this study (1) analyzed, as an example of the statewide power grid of the future, the power system of the state of Georgia in 2010, (2) modeled the load consumption and the water inflow of the power system, (3) synthesized third-order power output functions for costs, emissions, and water consumption from actual heat-rate data, and (4) estimated the power output of PV systems geographically dispersed throughout the state and hydroelectric resources of the state in hourly intervals. Lastly, it performed simulations for the generation resource allocation of the power system in hourly and minute intervals.