Modeling and optimization of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers
MetadataShow full item record
The objective of this research is to develop large signal modeling and optimization methods for Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUTs), especially when they are used in an array configuration. General modeling and optimization methods that cover a large domain of CMUT designs are crucial, as many membrane and array geometry combinations are possible using existing microfabrication technologies. Currently, large signal modeling methods for CMUTs are not well established and nonlinear imaging techniques utilizing linear piezoelectric transducers are not applicable to CMUTs because of their strong nonlinearity. In this work, the nonlinear CMUT behavior is studied, and a feedback linearization method is proposed to reduce the CMUT nonlinearity. This method is shown to improve the CMUT performance for continuous wave applications, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound or harmonic imaging, where transducer linearity is crucial. In the second part of this dissertation, a large signal model is developed that is capable of transient modeling of CMUT arrays with arbitrary electrical terminations. The developed model is suitable for iterative design optimization of CMUTs and CMUT based imaging systems with arbitrary membrane and array geometries for a variety of applications. Finally, a novel multi-pulse method for nonlinear tissue and contrast agent imaging with CMUTs is presented. It is shown that the nonlinear content can be successfully extracted from echo signals in a CMUT based imaging system using a multiple pulse scheme. The proposed method is independent of the CMUT geometry and valid for large signal operation. Experimental results verifying the developed large signal CMUT array model, proposed gap feedback and multi-pulse techniques are also presented.