Theoretical description of charge-transport and charge-generation parameters in single-component and bimolecular charge-transfer organic semiconductors
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In this dissertation, we employ a number of computational methods, including Ab Initio, Density Functional Theory, and Molecular Dynamics simulations to investigate key microscopic parameters that govern charge-transport and charge-generation in single-component and bimolecular charge-transfer organic semiconductors. First, electronic (transfer integrals, bandwidths, effective masses) and electron-phonon couplings of single-component organic semiconductors are discussed. In particular, we evaluate microscopic charge-transport parameters in a series of nonlinear acenes with extended pi-conjugated cores. Our studies suggest that high charge-carrier mobilities are expected in these materials, since large electronic couplings are obtained and the formation of self-localized polarons due to local and nonlocal electron-phonon couplings is unlikely. Next, we evaluate charge detrapping due to interaction with intra-molecular crystal vibrations in order to explain changes in experimentally measured electric conductivity generated by pulse excitations in the IR region of a photoresistor based on pentacene/C60 thin film. Here, we directly relate the nonlocal electron-phonon coupling constants with variations in photoconductivity. In terms of charge-generation from an excited manifold, we evaluate the modulation of the state couplings between singlet and triplet excited states due to crystal vibrations, in order to understand the effect of lattice vibrations on singlet fission in tetracene crystal. We find that the state coupling between localized singlet and correlated triplet states is much more strongly affected by the dynamical disorder due to lattice vibrations than the coupling between the charge-transfer singlet and triplet states. Next, the impact of Hartree-Fock exchange in the description of transport properties in crystalline organic semiconductors is discussed. Depending on the nature of the electronic coupling, transfer integrals and bandwidths can show a significant increase as a function of the amount of the Hartree-Fock exchange included in the functional. Similar trend is observed for lattice relaxation energy. It is also shown that the ratio between electronic coupling and lattice relaxation energy is practically independent of the amount of the Hartree-Fock exchange, making this quantity a good candidate for incorporation into tight-binding transport models. We also demonstrate that it is possible to find an amount of the Hartree-Fock exchange that recovers (quasi-particle) band structure obtained from a highly accurate G0W0 approach. Finally, a microscopic understanding of a phase transition in charge-carrier mobility from temperature independent to thermally activated in stilbene-tetrafluoro-tetracyanoquinodimethane crystal is provided.
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