TAR: Trajectory adaptation for recognition of robot tasks to improve teamwork
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One key to more effective cooperative interaction in a multi-robot team is the ability to understand the behavior and intent of other robots. Observed teammate action sequences can be learned to perform trajectory recognition which can be used to determine their current task. Previously, we have applied behavior histograms, hidden Markov models (HMMs), and conditional random fields (CRFs) to perform trajectory recognition as an approach to task monitoring in the absence of commu- nication. To demonstrate trajectory recognition of various autonomous vehicles, we used trajectory-based techniques for model generation and trajectory discrimination in experiments using actual data. In addition to recognition of trajectories, we in- troduced strategies, based on the honeybee’s waggle dance, in which cooperating autonomous teammates could leverage recognition during periods of communication loss. While the recognition methods were able to discriminate between the standard trajectories performed in a typical survey mission, there were inaccuracies and delays in identifying new trajectories after a transition had occurred. Inaccuracies in recog- nition lead to inefficiencies as cooperating teammates acted on incorrect data. We then introduce the Trajectory Adaptation for Recognition (TAR) framework which seeks to directly address difficulties in recognizing the trajectories of autonomous vehicles by modifying the trajectories they follow to perform them. Optimization techniques are used to modify the trajectories to increase the accuracy of recognition while also improving task objectives and maintaining vehicle dynamics. Experiments are performed which demonstrate that using trajectories optimized in this manner lead to improved recognition accuracy.