Module-level autonomous settingless protection and monitoring for standalone and grid-connected photovoltaic array systems using quadratic integration modeling
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This research applies a recently developed dynamic state-estimation based protection scheme, the settingless protection, to the photovoltaic (PV) industry for the first time. At this time, the proposed protection algorithm has been implemented on traditional protection zones for individual power system devices, but this research extends this protection to a microgrid, specifically, a system of PV network composed of several PV modules. Several illustrative examples on various anomalies such as high impedance faults and shorted-out PV modules have been provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of this protection scheme. The detection of these anomalies has been demonstrated in the presence of changing atmospheric conditions, and with the operation of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) equipped dc-dc converters. This protection scheme requires an accurate model of the PV module, therefore, a two-diode PV model has been developed using quadratic integration modeling. In this PV model development, a scaling factor is applied to the Taylor series expansion of the exponential terms of the model of the PV module. Then the higher order terms of the Taylor series expansion are reduced to at most second order terms using the quadratization technique. Furthermore, a novel approach for extracting the PV parameters, namely, the ideality constants, leakage currents, PV module internal current, shunt and series resistances, has been presented. A comparison was performed between numerically generated data using the determined PV module parameters and data measurements from a physical PV module. It was shown that the maximum error from this comparison was below 0.12A, and less than 0.05A around the maximum power point region of the PV modules used for this research. The residual data from the PV array protection scheme has been used to develop a method for identifying the location of faulted PV modules. Also, condition-based monitoring of the PV array system has also been presented with examples. From the PV array system monitoring, the shading and underperformance of a PV module have been identified. From the contributions of this research, an accurate module of the PV array has been developed in a form that can be integrated with other power system devices. This accurate module can be used for state estimation of the PV array, load flow analysis, short circuit analysis, and other power system analytical studies. Also, by determining the location of the faulted PV module, the time to identify this faulted PV module in a large PV installation is drastically reduced. Lastly, by identifying shading conditions and underperforming PV modules, the PV system operator can quickly bring the underperforming module or modules to optimal performance, thereby, maximizing the power yield of the PV array, and maximizing the revenue of the PV system owner.