Power distribution network modeling and microfluidic cooling for high-performance computing systems
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A silicon interposer platform with microfluidic cooling is proposed for high-performance computing systems. The key components and technologies for the proposed platform, including electrical and fluidic microbumps, microfluidic vias and heat sinks, and simultaneous flip-chip bonding of the electrical and fluidic microbumps, are developed and demonstrated. Fine-pitch electrical microbumps of 25 µm diameter and 50 µm pitch, fluidic vias of 100 µm diameter, and annular-shaped fluidic microbumps of 150 µm inner diameter and 210 µm outer diameter were fabricated and bonded. Electrical and fluidic tests were conducted to verify the bonding results. Moreover, the thermal and signaling benefits of the proposed platform were evaluated based on thermal measurements and simulations, and signaling simulations. Compared to the conventional air cooling, significant reductions in system temperature and thermal coupling are achieved with the proposed platform. Moreover, the signaling performance is improved due to the reduced temperature, especially for long interconnects on the silicon interposer. A numerical power distribution network (PDN) simulator is developed based on distributed circuit models for on-die power/ground grids, package- and board- level power/ground planes, and the finite difference method. The simulator enables power supply noise simulation, including IR-drop and simultaneous switching noise, for a full chip with multiple blocks of different power, decoupling capacitor, and power/ground pad densities. The distributed circuit model is further extended to include TSVs to enable simulations for 3D PDN. The integration of package- and board- level power/ground planes enables co-simulation of die-package-board PDN and exploration of new PDN configurations.