Quality assessments of solder bump interconnections in ball grid array packages using laser ultrasonics and laser interferometer
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Surface mount devices (SMDs), such as flip chip packages and ball grid array (BGA) packages are gaining in popularity in microelectronics industry because they provide high density inputs/outputs, better electrical and thermal performance. However, these solder bump interconnections in SMDs are sandwiched between the silicon die and the substrate, which makes them challenging to be inspected. Current non-destructive solder bump inspection techniques like electrical testing, X-ray and acoustic microscopy have some application gaps. New solder bump inspection technique is urgently needed to fill these gaps. Previous work has shown the potential of using a non-contact, non-destructive laser ultrasonics and laser interferometer based inspection system for assessing solder bump qualities. The system uses a pulsed Nd:YAG laser to induce ultrasound in the chip packages and a laser interferometer to measure the transient out-of-plane displacement on the package surface. The quality of the solder bumps can be evaluated by analyzing the out-of-plane displacement. However, there are still some gaps that need to be addressed before the system is ready on the shelf. This dissertation focuses on addressing some of these existing issues. The research work consists of the following: 1) a control interface was developed to integrate all the different modules to achieve automation. 2) a new signal-processing method for analyzing the transient out-of-plane displacement signals without requiring a known-good reference chip was developed. 3) the application scope of the system was expanded to inspect the second level solder bumps in BGA packages. Two types of process-induced defects including poor-wetting and solder bump voids were investigated. Meanwhile, solder bump fatigue caused by cyclic mechanical bending and thermal cycle was also studied using this system. 4) a finite element analysis was performed to study the thermo-mechanical reliability of solder bumps in PBGA package under cyclic thermal loads. The successful completion of the research objectives has led to a laser ultrasound solder bump inspection system prototype with more user-friendliness, higher throughputs, better repeatability and more flexibility, which accelerate the commercialization the system.