Design of a universal inductive charging system for electric vehicles
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A promising method for charging batteries of electric vehicles (EV) is inductive power transfer (IPT), also known as inductive charging. IPT, a convenient, safe, and aesthetic method of charging EVs, inductively transfers high-frequency AC power in the transmitting pad, or coil, to the receiving pad, or coil. However, the application of IPT entails several practical limitations. For example, misalignment of the coils and varied charging distance (air gap) between the coils change the magnetic coupling effect between the transmitting and receiving coils. As a result, system stability decreases because the electrical characteristics in different charging cycles vary. Previous research has rarely proposed an adaptive and effective method to solve the problems of varied coupling. Many EV models, however, exist on the market and more will be released in the future. A universal charger suitable for charging various models of EVs will have broad applications, especially in public charging areas. Therefore, we must design a universal inductive charger capable of providing stable charging voltage to various loads, even with influences by varied magnetic coupling. Also important is the design standard of on-board chargers used for universal inductive charging. The design schemes of the universal inductive charger and on-board chargers can be used as references for the future development of the entire EV inductive charging system.